1st Prize (1 copy of THE HELM GUIDE TO BIRD IDENTIFICATION by Keith Vinicombe and a Distinguished Award Certificate) Ahmad Faris Bin Ahmad Rizal – Sekolah Menengah Sains Alam Shah, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

2nd Prize (1 copy of BIRDS: A COMPLETE GUIDE TO THEIR BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR by Jonathan Elphick and a Distinguished Award Certificate)  Elysa Rasyiqa Humaira Binti Mohd Reezal – Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia

3rd Prize (1 copy of THE 100 BEST BIRDWATCHING SITES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA edited by Yong Ding Li and Low Bing Wen) Tsoi Kin Hang – St. Louis School, West Port, Hong Kong, China.


(1 copy each of CUCKOO: CHEATING BY NATURE by Nick Davies  and a Merit Award Certificate)

  1. Mohammad Fahmi Aiman Bin Mokhtar– SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Anisha Gill – SMK Perempuan Methodist, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
  1. Lee Chang Rong – Taylor’s College, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
  1. Muhammad Hazeeq Bin Shammim Azad – SM Sains Alam Shah, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  1. Nik Basirah Aisyah Binti Zakaria – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Wan Amira Ezzati Binti Wan Abdul Ghani – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Nur Nadhirah Binti Mohd Nizam – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.


Certificate of Participation

  1. Nurul Nabihah Binti Johan – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Nurul Fariha Binti Noor Azmi – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Simon Wee Boon Kim – Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  1. Iika Athirah Binti Mohammad Rosli – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Nurin Hannani Binti Mohd Bakhary – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.
  1. Izzah Farihah Binti Ahmad Hamdany – SM Sains Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.



1st Prize ( 1 copy of BIRDS: A COMPLETE GUIDE TO THEIR BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR by Jonathan Elphick and a Distinguished Award Certificate) Ong Ee-Tienne – SMK Convent Ipoh, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.

2nd Prize (1 copy of THE 100 BEST BIRDWATCHING SITES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA edited by Yong Ding Li and Low Bing Wen)  Pravena Devi Jayabalan – SMK King George V, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.

3rd Prize (1 copy of CUCKOO: CHEATING BY NATURE by Nick Davies) Hanan Widad Binti Hassan Al Fahmi – Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia


(1 copy each of A NATURALIST’S GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF MALAYSIA by G.W.H. Davison and Yeap Chin Aik, and a Merit Award Certificate)

  1. Darlene Kawilarang– Sekolah Lentara Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  1. Vidhya Vaishnavi Suppiah – Unity Secondary School, Singapore.
  1. Muhammad Haiqal Bin Raziman – SMK Damansara Utama, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
  1. Mikhail Kaysan Leksmana – Home Education – Catatan, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  1. Sneha Thiagarajan – SMK Ibrahim, Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia.
  1. Dhiptha Desigan – Unity Secondary School, Singapore
  1. Auni Fasihah Binti Mohamad – SM Sains Muzaffar Syah, Ayer Keroh, Melaka, Malaysia.


Certificate of Participation

  1. Kanitvipa Wattanasan – Heathfield International School, Bangkok, Thailand..
  1. Phiriyanka Ganeson – SMK Taman Desa 2, Rawang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  1. Boonyanaree Wattanasan – Heathfield International School, Bangkok, Thailand.
  1. Ninya Khabush– Heathfield International School, Bangkok, Thailand.




Chief Judge

Dr. Puan Chong Leong
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Serdang, Selangor

Dr. David R. Wells,
Former professor of zoology, University of Malaya
Kuala Lumpur
He currently resides at Norfolk, UK

Mr. Yeap Chin Aik
Hornbill Conservation Officer
The Malaysian Nature Society
Kuala Lumpur



Chief Judge

Mr. Cornelius Anuar Abdullah McAfee
Deputy Director, Centre for Internationalisation and Corporate Communications
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu

Mr. Andrew J. Sebastian
Chief Executive Officer
Ecotourism and Conservation Society Malaysia (ECOMY)
Kuala Lumpur

Dr. Woei Ong
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Serdang, Selangor,


The first, second, and third entries from both categories, will be published on this website on 28 October 2016. Only entries which have reached a certain level of standard shall be eligible for certificates of participation.

AIWC 2016 – The Final Selection List

AIWC 2016 – The Final Selection List

The Organizing Committee apologizes for not being able to post this on 1 September as scheduled due to technical glitches.




  1. Nurul Nabihah Johan – Malaysia
  2. Nurin Hanani Mohd Bakhary– Malaysia
  3. Nik Basirah Aisyah Zakaria– Malaysia
  4. Wan Amira Ezzati Wan Abdul Ghani – Malaysia
  5. Mohammad Fahmi Aiman Mokhtar – Malaysia
  6. Izzah Farihah Ahmad Hamdany – Malaysia
  7. Iika Atirah Mohammad Rosli – Malaysia
  8. Nurul Farihah Noor Azmi – Malaysia
  9. Simon Wee Boon Kim – Malaysia
  10. Ahmad Faris Ahmad Rizal – Malaysia
  11. Muhammad Hazeeq Shammim Azad – Malaysia
  12. Nur Nadhirah Mohd Nizam – Malaysia
  13. Anisha Gill – Malaysia
  14. Tsoi Kin Hang – China
  15. Lee Chang Rong – Malaysia
  16. Faridatul Najwa Mohd Fuad – Malaysia
  17. Muhammad Shahi Aiman Mohd Shahrin – Malaysia
  18. Nurul Hidayah Ab Ghani – Malaysia
  19. Muhammad Nazmi Badrul Hisham – Malaysia
  20. Uzma Syazwina Mohd Kamari – Malaysia
  21. Okhwan Hakim Mohamad Ali – Malaysia
  22. Hashim Suhaimi – Malaysia
  23. Thanaporn Bun Sut – Malaysia
  24. Muhammad Izz Tamunif – Malaysia
  25. Iman Farhana Malek Faisal – Malaysia
  26. Elysa Rasyiqa Humaira Mohd Reezal – Malaysia
  27. Muhammad Atim Zainal – Malaysia
  28. Nurul Ainaa Aqilah Saifolbahari – Malaysia
  29. Ummi Raimi Ibrahim – Malaysia
  30. Nur Aimy Izyana Che Mazlan – Malaysia




  1. Muhammad Haikal Raziman – Malaysia
  2. Muhammad Ismawie Danial Mohammad Daid – Malaysia
  3. Rendi Irfandhani – Indonesia
  4. Amir Izzani Amir Izzwan– Malaysia
  5. Hanan Widad Hassan Alfahmi – Malaysia
  6. Darlene Kawilarang– Indonesia
  7. Sneha Thiagarajan – Malaysia
  8. Mafaz Muhammad Jamsyid – Malaysia
  9. Aqiela Harithuddin – Malaysia
  10. Danish Haikal Suzailan – Malaysia
  11. Nur Afifah Ainul Rahman – Malaysia
  12. Ninya Khabush – Thailand
  13. Boonyanaree Wattanasan – Thailand
  14. Kanitvipa Wattanasan – Thailand
  15. Vidya Vaishnavi Suppiah – Singapore
  16. Dhipta Desigan– Singapore
  17. Ong Ee-Tienne – Malaysia
  18. Fadhlin Jeslina Ismail– Malaysia
  19. Phiriyanka Ganeson – Malaysia
  20. Auni Fasihah Mohamad – Malaysia
  21. Mikail Kaysan Leksmana – Indonesia
  22. Preevena Devi Jayabalan – Malaysia
  23. Muhammad Sani Abdul Rahman – Malaysia
  24. Jugraj Singh – India
  25. Nur Baizura Mohamed Tahir – Malaysia
  26. Samuel Chee Hong Chew – Malaysia
  27. Meor Saifuddin Meor Hassan – Malaysia
  28. Muhammad Sattar Hussein – Malaysia
  29. Muhammad Sabri Abdul Rauf – Malaysia
  30. Kamaliah Muhammad Talib – Malaysia



The competition was successfully launched on Thursday, 24 March 2016, in the hall of Sekolah Menengah Sains Alam Shah (Alam Shah Science School), Kuala Lumpur. It was attended by all of the school’s students and teachers together with invited guests from four other schools in Kuala Lumpur. It was officiated by Professor Dr. Ahmad Bin Ibrahim, Head of the Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia. The school principal, Mr. Roslie Bin Ahmad in his address, welcomed all guests and stressed on the importance of writing as an important tool to convey pertinent issues on conservation. Mr. Henry Goh, President of the Malaysian Nature Society and Vice Chairman of BirdLife Asia Council spoke on the role of BirdLife International and its global partners in promoting conservation of nature throughout the world. The keynote address was delivered by Dr. Geoffrey W.H. Davison, Assistant Director of the National Parks Board of Singapore, who himself is a renowned figure in conservation circles in South East Asia. Two video clips, A PARTNERSHIP OF HOPE – BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL and COUSIN ISLAND: A CONSERVATION SUCCESS were also shown to highlight the role of BirdLife International in the efforts to conserve nature on a global scale. The Organizer hopes that many schools throughout the world would take part in the competition and become increasingly aware of the current issues affecting bird conservation today.

The principal’s welcome address


Mr. Henry Goh explains the role of BirdLife International in global conservation


The keynote address by Dr. G.W.H. Davison


Professor Dr. Ahmad Bin Ismail launches the event.


Teachers and students witnessing the launch


Group photograph after the launch

AIWC – ASiS International Essay Writing Competition 2016

ASiS International Essay Writing Competition 2016

The Organiser:
SM Sains Alam Shah (Alam Shah Science School), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (ASiS) in collaboration with the Malaysian Nature Society and BirdLife International. The Malaysian Nature Society is the global partner of BirdLife International in Malaysia.


Theme: Conserving Our Natural Heritage – Birds: A Global Perspective

Birds with their power of flight have had a great advantage over other animals in being able to travel great distances over natural geographical barriers and international boundaries to new foraging grounds. For thousands of years, birds have been an integral part of the culture of many communities worldwide. They range in size from the mighty ostrich to the tiny hummingbird. They also come in different shapes, sizes, and colour. Many are accomplished songsters and others are dressed in an array of dazzling and colourful plumages.  According to Avibase, the world bird database, there are approximately 10,000 species of birds with approximately another 22,000 subspecies. They occur throughout the world in tropical, temperate, and the polar regions Throughout the centuries, especially in the 19th and 20th, many species of birds have had their populations declining, with some becoming extinct due to habitat loss and overhunting and trapping by man. More recently the consumption of dead livestock treated by veterinary drugs by vultures has caused huge populations of old world vultures in both Asia and Africa to decline rapidly, pushing some of them to critically endangered levels. The Dodo Raphus cucullatus of Mauritius became extinct around 1662 when settlers hunted it and introduced invasive animals which competed with it for habitat and food. It is the earliest recorded species of a bird which became extinct. Today it is the symbol of extinction, hence the phrase “As dead as a Dodo’. Other species which became extinct in the 20th century include the once numerous Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius and the Carolina Parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis. Many other once numerous species such as the Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis have been reduced to the status of critically endangered. The latest addition to the list of extinct birds is the Alaotra Grebe Tachybaptus rufolavatus in 2010. It is man who has the power to rectify the situation and plan new strategies to conserve birds and other wildlife together with their habitats so as to prevent the further decline and extinction of species.


Topics for the Senior Category (16-18 years)

1.    Bird habitats are fast disappearing as we move into the 21st century. Give examples of disappearing bird habitats in your country or region and the current efforts taken to preserve them and their associated birdlife.

2.    Describe one or some of the endangered species of birds in your country. Discuss its/ their global conservation status and as a school student, give suggestions on how your country’s law makers, non-governmental organizations, educational establishments, and international conservation organizations, can pool their resources to ensure its / their long term survival. You are also encouraged to give other relevant suggestions of your own.

3.    Describe an Important Bird Area (IBA) in your country, its birdlife as well as its contribution to national and global conservation.

4.    Many species of birds migrate from their temperate breeding grounds during autumn southwards to warmer latitudes, returning north along well defined routes or flyways to breed in the spring of the following year. Along these routes are staging sites where migrants stop to rest and feed before resuming these tedious journeys. Describe the process of bird migration and some of the migratory birds which winter or breed in your country, the flyways in your country and region, as well as principal staging sites along these migratory routes. Emphasize why it is very important to protect the habitats within these staging sites together with those in both their breeding and wintering grounds.


Topics for the Junior Category (12-15 years)

1.    A world without birds is indeed a lonely world. Describe your feelings in the light of this statement.

2.    What is the national bird of your country? Describe its significance and what it means to you and your country. (Official birds of states and provinces may also be considered for this question).

3.    What is your favourite bird? Describe it and tell us why you like it. (For the purposes of this question, you may also choose a bird which does not occur in your country).

4.    Birds should always be free and should not be kept as pets in captivity. Suggest ways to convince mankind not to do so and hence help to stop both the legal and illegal global trade in wild birds.


Calendar 2016

24 March 2016
– Launch of the Essay Writing Competition

24 March – 30 June 2016
– The duration of the competition

30 June 2016
– Deadline for submissions.

01 July – 31 August 2016
– Processing of all entries

01 September 2016
– The 30 shortlisted participants from each category will be announced on the website

01 September – 01 October
– Evaluating the final entries from each category.

10 October 2016
– The top three award winning entries and the next seven best entries (consolation) for both the senior and junior categories will be announced on the website.

28 October 2016
– Closing and Presentation of certificates to the eligible entrants who are able to attend


The ASiS International Essay Writing Competition 2016 (AIWC) would like to hear the views of school students worldwide on the conservation of birds and their habitats and the repercussions on wild bird populations worldwide resulting from habitat destruction, hunting, and trapping, as well as efforts undertaken to combat these. In this respect, prospective participants are encouraged to:

Give a clear cut definition of the issue at hand in the questions chosen.

Give your perceptions of the situation globally or in your respective countries, or both.

Outline the roles of the government, non-governmental organizations, global conservation organizations, educational establishments, and the people in efforts to instil love and respect for the rights of birds as the rightful determiners of their own destinies.

Focus on one or more programmes in your country or globally to instil awareness on bird conservation and the efforts to put an end to habitat loss, hunting, and trapping.

We would also encourage you to draw on your personal experiences when possible and focus on providing your own creative solutions to ensure the inculcation of moral values among the citizens of your country and the efforts to put a stop to hunting, trapping, and the trade in bird species, especially the endangered ones.

Entrants are strongly advised to read the terms and conditions as well as the frequently asked questions before writing your essays.


Terms and conditions

1. This competition is open to nationals or residents of all countries throughout    the world.

2. There is no entry fee.

3. There are two categories, senior and junior. Participants must select a junior or senior topic depending on their age on 30 June 2016. If you are between the ages of 16 and 18 on this date you are eligible for the senior category and if you are between the ages of 12 and 15, you are then eligible to participate in the junior category.

4. There are four topics in each category. Eligible participants may only submit one work.

5. All work must be submitted by individuals, group work is not allowed.

6. Your essay must not exceed 1500 words for the senior category, and 750 words for the junior category. There is however a recommended minimum of 1200 words for the senior category and 600 words for the junior category. Citation of references and inclusion of charts or diagrams will not count into the total number of words in your essay.

7. All entries must be submitted together with the official entry form which can be downloaded from the website.

8. Essays are accepted only on MS Word Document, using Arial, font size 12. Other formats will be considered provided they can be converted to MS Word. For grading and compilation purposes we prefer that you not send your work in the pdf format.

9. Submissions will be accepted until 30 June 2016.

10. All essays must be in English.

11. Submissions must be sent in MS Word document via email attachment to for the Senior Category and for the Junior Category, and must be together with the official entry form AIWC -2016 – PARTICIPATION. Please also include your postal / mailing address.

12. Please fill in your name in the official entry form only. Do not include your name in the essay.

13. Participants must provide the names and websites of their respective schools only in the entry form when submitting their entries.

14. If quotes and references are included, you are encouraged to clearly mark these throughout the essay and properly cite them.

15. All submissions must be original. No previously published material will be accepted. Please do not copy chunks of text from the internet and paste them in your essays. ANY FORM OF PLAGIARISM WILL RESULT IN AUTOMATIC DISQUALIFICATION

16. The Organizer reserves the right to publish and / to make available to the public the winning submissions.

17. The decision of the jury is final and is not subject to an appeal.


Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the deadline for submissions?
The deadline for submissions is 30 June 2016. Work submitted after the deadline will not be considered.

2. How do I submit?
The submission process is very simple. Essays must be submitted on MS Word (Arial, font size 12) via email attachment. Other formats are allowed provided they can be converted to MS Word. Avoid pdfs.

3. Who is eligible to participate?
This essay writing competition is open for school students from all countries throughout the world. College (except junior college and pre-university) and university students are not eligible to participate.

4. I am just under 12 or just over 18 – can I still participate?
This competition is intended only for school students between 16 – 18 years of age in Category A and 12-15 years in Category B. If you are between ages 16 and 19 on 30 June 2016, you are eligible to participate in the Senior Category. No exceptions will be granted. If you are 18 years and 1 day on that date, you are still eligible, so long as you don’t reach 19 years. Those who are 15 years and 11 months will not be considered for the senior category as you have not reached 16 years. If you are between the ages of 12-16 on 30 June 2016, you are eligible to participate in the Junior Category. If you are 11 years and 11 months on that day you will not be eligible to participate in the Junior Category as you have not reached 12 years.

5. Can I write on more than one topic?
No, you can only submit one essay each, which means you have to choose one of the four topics in your respective category.

6.  In what language shall I submit my work?
This essay can only be written in English.

7. Am I allowed to include graphs, tables, or diagrams in my essay?
Yes, you are welcome (but not obliged) to include the mentioned. The content will not count into the total number of words in your essay. Please make sure you explain what each graph, table, or diagram represents.

8. Is there a word limit for the essays?
Yes, different word count rules apply to both Senior and Junior Categories. See Terms and conditions for more details.

9. Should I put my name, age, school, and country on my essay?
No please do not do this. All relevant details are to be written only in the entry form which can be downloaded from the website. You may only write the topic number and topic on your essay.

10. What are the evaluation criteria for the submissions?
Essays will be graded for their structure and coherence, originality and creativity and the use of thoughtful and concrete proposals.



Senior Category

First Prize
– A bird conservation book worth GBP30.00 and a distinguished award  certificate.

Second Prize
– A bird conservation book worth GBP25.00 and a distinguished award  certificate.

Third Prize
– A bird conservation book worth GBP20.00 and a distinguished award  certificate.

Seven consolation prizes of a bird conservation book each worth GBP 15.00 and a merit award certificate.


Junior Category

First Prize
–  A bird conservation book worth GBP20.00 and a distinguished award  certificate.

Second Prize
– A bird conservation book worth GBP15.00 and a distinguished award  certificate.

Third Prize
– A bird conservation book worth GBP12.00 and a distinguished award  certificate.

Seven consolation prizes of a bird conservation book each worth GBP 10.00 and a merit award certificate.

Certificates of participation will also be awarded to the twenty participants from each category who qualified for the final evaluation but did not win any prize.


Some useful websites


Contact :
E-mail: Please send all general inquiries regarding both categories of the competition to :

SM Sains Alam Shah
Jalan Yaacob Latif
Bandar Tun Razak
56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Telephone  : +603 91315014
Fax             : +603 91318119

website       :

Birds: A Global Perspective

1.Great-HornbillHornbills are found throughout much of tropical Asia and Africa. Many species have declined greatly due to degradation of tropical rainforests. Since they are greatly dependent on forest fruits and tree cavities to nest in, hornbills are good indicators of the carrying capacity of the rainforest. This is a Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis. Photo by ANUAR McAFEE

2. kenyir-2
Tasik Kenyir, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia, is situated on the north-western edge of Taman Negara, which is an Important Bird Area (IBA) in the country. Photo by ANUAR McAFEE

3.nakuru downsized
Lake Nakuru, Kenya, is one of Africa’s Important Bird Areas especially for water birds. Photo by ALLEN JEYARAJASINGAM

4.hooded downsized
Old World vultures throughout much of Asia and Africa have declined drastically at the beginning of the 21st century due to the poisoning of livestock carcasses caused principally by certain veterinary drugs used in the treatment of livestock. The once common Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus is now critically endangered throughout much of its range in Africa. Photo by ALLEN JEYARAJASINGAM

5.sardinian warbler
The Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala is common throughout the Mediterranean region. Photo by JOE SULTANA

The European Robin Erithacus rubecula is a very familiar garden bird throughout much of Europe. Photo by JOE SULTANA

7. Pinkfooted Geese Aloft Norway 2012-04-20 045 Taej
The Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus breeds in eastern Greenland, Iceland, and Svalbard (Norway). During winter it migrates principally to western Europe. Photo by TAEJ MUNDKUR

8. Australianhobby
Fairly common throughout Australia, and New Guinea is the Australian Hobby Falco longipennis. Photo by ALAN MALLAD

9. Little Corella
Cockatoos are parrots which have their centre of distribution in Australasia. Featured here is the Little Corella Cacatua sanguinea, feeding on a lawn. Photo by ALAN MALLAD

10. Scarlet robin
The Scarlet Robin Petroica boodang is one of the more colourful birds found in Australia. Photo by ALAN MALLAD

11. Laysan Duck
The Laysan Duck Anas laysanensis which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands was reduced to only 12 individuals by 1912 because of introduced animals such as the rabbit which displaced the duck. By reintroduction programmes to other parts of the north Pacific, numbers increased. Today it is still categorized as Critically Endangered (CR). Photo by CALEB SLEMMONS

12. Pine Grosbeak
The Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator enjoys a wide distribution in the coniferous forests of North America and Eurasia. Photo by MARTHA DE JONG-LANTIK

13. American Yellow Warbler
The American Yellow Warbler Setophaga petechia is the most widespread member of its genus and breeds throughout much of North America south to Central America and northern South America.Birds are very good indicators of changes in the environment. A decline in the number of a common species can mean that something is happening in the habitat within its range.  Photo by LAURA GOOCH

14. Chestnut-mandibled Toucan
Toucans are a neotropical family of colourful forest birds, occurring throughout much of Central and South America. Featured here is the Chestnut-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos ambiguous from Costa Rica. Photo by CHRIS ARTUSO

15, Migrating Oriental Honey Buzzards
During migration, raptors are highly dependent on rising thermals during hot days, allowing them to soar and glide long distances without having to expend energy unnecessarily by continuous flapping. These are spring bound Oriental Honey Buzzards Pernis ptilorhynchus at Tanjung Tuan, Melaka, Peninsular Malaysia. Photo by HENRY GOH

16. Red Knots
Many species of waders or shorebirds which breed in the northern subarctic tundra in spring, migrate long distance southwards to tropical wintering quarters in autumn, seeking food and refuge there. Along their breeding and wintering grounds are staging sites where the migrants stop to rest and feed to regain energy to continue their flight. These are mostly Red Knots Calidris canutus and a few Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica. Photo by NEOH HOR KEE

17. Mombasa Bird Watchers
Birdwatchers at Mombasa, Kenya. The field notes of amateur bird watchers can yield scientific information which is valuable for conservation efforts in a country or region. DORIS SCHAULE

18. Malta
School education programmes to create conservation awareness among school children can play a significant role in helping conservation programmes in a country. Once such programme is DINJA WAHDA in Malta. Photo courtesy of BIRDLIFE MALTA

19. Raptor Watch 2016 poster
Raptor Watch has been an annual event since 2000 organized by the Malaysian Nature Society to create awareness of raptor migration. Photo courtesy of the MALAYSIAN NATURE SOCIETY